Alcoholics Anonymous


Alzheimers Association Australia


Assessment Consultation


Alternative Care Arrangements (ReplacesHotel/Motel Placements)


Aged Care Association Australia


Aged Care Approvals Round


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Child Behaviour Check List


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Disability & Aged Information Service Inc


Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale


Dialectical Behaviour Therapy


Dillwynia Correctional Centre, CSNSW


Division of General Practice


Department of Human Services


Department of Health & Ageing


5th Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders


Disability Support Pension


Department of Social Services


Department of Veterans Affairs


Domestic Violence Crisis Service


Extended Aged Care in the Home


Early Childhood Early Intervention


Equal Employment Opportunity


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Emergency Material and Financial Aid


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Evaluation Quality Improvement Program


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Extended Supervision Order


Family and Community Services


Commissioning and Planning Officer


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Full-time Equivalent


Gamblers Anonymous


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Information, Linkages, and Capacity Building


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Joint Investigation Response Team


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Local Government NSW


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M & E

Monitoring and Evaluating


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Maternal and Child Health


Minimum Data Set


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Multi Service Outlet


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Metropolitan Special Programs Centre, CSNSW


Narcotics Anonymous


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National Association for Loss & Grief


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National Community Care Advisory Committee


North Carolina Family Assessment Scale-Reunification


Council of Social Service of New South Wales


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National Residential Care Advisory Committee


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National Respite for Carers Program


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Office of the Children’s Guardian


Offender Information Management System


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Ongoing Needs Indicators


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Permanency Support Program (FACS Funded) 6 month reviews-more if under restoration


Parramatta Transitional Centre, CSNSW


People/Person with Disability


Quality Assurance Framework


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Retirement Village Residents Association


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Services and Programs Officers


Secondary Assessment (Now called Alternative Assessment)


Service Co-ordination and Advocacy Network


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Screening and Response Tool

SDM Tool

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State Wide Disability Services


Service Description Schedule


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Supported Independent Living


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Subject Matter Experts


Sex Offender Program


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Summary of Proposed Plan for the Child or Young Person


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A ten item actualial sex offender risk assessment instrument


Sex and Violent Offender Theraputic Programs


Temporary Assistance Project


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Transport Working Group


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Characteristics Commonly Found in “Alienated” Parents (or other Alienated Relationships)

Characteristics Commonly Found in “Alienated” Parents (or other Alienated Relationships)

If you’ve ever experienced the rejection of a child or other important relationship, then I’m sure you’ll find the observations presented in this article compelling.

Being on the receiving end of a rejection can be devastating.  Whether it’s a boss, a parent, or a relative, the pain can be very difficult to contend with. If it’s your child, you tend to feel particularly vulnerable.

Most parents, when rejected by a child, tend to think of everything they did wrong, or maybe that “one” thing they did wrong that could have caused the rift, playing over and over in their minds how they could have changed that “one” thing.

I have observed some common characteristics of people who are on the receiving end of parental alienation. These three main traits are:

  1. They are available
  2. They are guileless
  3. They are powerless

Following is a discussion of each of these traits.

Available:  Children rarely reject unavailable or abusive parents. Usually when that happens it is not without a great amount of anguish and grieving. When a child alienates a parent, he/she does so with impudence. He/she experiences no sense of loss or regret. Instead, he/she feels relieved. Internally, the child knows he/she could have the rejected parent back at any time. This emboldens the child and helps him/her realize that there is no great risk in rejecting the available parent.

Guileless:  People who are guileless tend to be “innocent and without deception.”  Guileless individuals usually project their innocence onto others and don’t see why they are being rejected, because it is not something they, themselves would ever do to anyone.  Alienated parents are usually not interested in playing dirty or fighting unfair.

The rejecting child is usually psychologically manipulated by the other parent or other important person (who is willing to fight dirty) to reject the guileless parent. It is a form of propagandizing the child and is akin to the mob effect of bullying.

Powerless: The rejected parent has somehow demonstrated a feeling of low power to their rejecting child. The shrugging of the shoulders and the attitude of, “what can I do?” comes to mind. This parent has insinuated to their rejecting child that the child has the power, not the parent. This usually happens in narcissistic relationships where the other parent imputes power into the child, causing the child to believe that he has more power than the rejected parent.

Trump Card:  This nails the coffin on the relationship. It is not a characteristic of the rejected parent, but it is an essential ingredient in the alienation process.

This involves the occurrence of a flaw, mistake, or failure on the part of the alienated parent. This failure is capitalized on by the narcissist or other alienating other as evidence of the rejected parent’s inadequacy. The alienated parent usually “owns” his/her failure and everyone believes it is so egregious that that parent has lost his/her value in the parent-child relationship.


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The Scary Truth About How We Are Hurting Our Children

The Scary Truth About How We Are Hurting Our Children


In the past week, I’ve read several studies that are scary to me… it’s the scary truth about what’s hurting our kids.   We all know that what our kids hear becomes their inner voice, but it’s hard to control what they hear from others, isn’t it?


CNN recently interviewed Dr. Jean Twenge, author of iGen and her interview worried me – because I saw the truth that I would be facing in just a few short years.   Dr. Twenge started doing research 25 years ago on generational differences, but when 2011 -2012 hit, she saw something that would scare her to the core.   This is the year when those having iPhones went over the 50% mark.

The results of that should scare all of us.

•This was the year that more kids started to say that they felt “sad, hopeless, useless… that they couldn’t do anything right (depression).”

•They felt left-out and lonely.

•There is a 50% increase in a clinical level depression between 2011-2015.

•A substantial increase in suicide rate.Before I give you any more, I want you to look at these graphs and look at how the information correlates to the iPhones being released.

They aren’t hanging out with friends  nearly as much.

They aren’t dating as much.


More likely to feel lonely.

They are getting less sleep.


She goes on to say that we are in the worst mental health crisis in decades.   

Why is this happening?  Why are kids more depressed because of electronics?

Think about when we were in school – we didn’t know every time that there was a get-together that we weren’t invited to and we didn’t see pictures of each outing, game, or party.

We didn’t care what we looked like when we were hanging out with friends, because we were  the only ones that were there- I can remember sitting around with my best friends in our sweatpants, just laughing – I didn’t wear makeup or care if I had my hair fixed just right, because the worry of a phone or camera wasn’t there.

Think about bullies.  When we left the school, we left them.   If teasing happened, it didn’t happen at home.  It didn’t happen so publicly.   Everyone couldn’t see it or know what they were teasing other kids about since they weren’t there.  Now, it’s all public knowledge, and anyone can join in or watch.   It’s horrifying.

I can’t imagine being a tween or teenager now.   Although- as the parents of children, we have to believe it, because we have to help our children navigate it.


According to Victoria Prooday, Occupational Therapist & writer at, “There is a silent tragedy developing right now, in our homes, and it concerns our most precious jewels – our children… Researchers have been releasing alarming statistics on a sharp and steady increase in kids’ mental illness, which is now reaching epidemic proportions:

•  1 in 5 children has mental health problems

•  43% increase in ADHD

• 37% increase in teen depression

• 200% increase in suicide rate in kids 10-14 years old


She goes on to say that “Today’s children are being deprived of the fundamentals of a healthy childhood:

•Emotionally available parents

•Clearly defined limits and guidance


•Balanced nutrition and adequate sleep

•Movement and outdoors

•Creative play, social interaction, opportunities for unstructured times and boredom

Instead, children are being served with:

•Digitally distracted parents

•Indulgent parents who let kids “Rule the world”

•Sense of entitlement rather than responsibility

•Inadequate sleep and unbalanced nutrition

•Sedentary indoor lifestyle

•Endless stimulation, technological babysitters, instant gratification, and absence of dull moments”

•How true… and how sad.

You can read the rest of her story at

I couldn’t agree more.  According to, “Despite the rise in teen depression, the study, which analysed data from the National Surveys on Drug Use and Health, reported that there wasn’t a corresponding increase in mental health treatment for adolescents and young adults. Researchers said this is an indication that there is a growing number of young people who are under-treated or not treated at all for their symptoms. ”

The article goes on to say that it’s not just teenagers, it’s young kids- in elementary school.  “Counsellors like Ellen Chance in Palm Beach say they see evidence that technology and online bullying are affecting kids’ mental health as young as fifth grade, particularly girls.

“I couldn’t tell you how many students are being malicious to each other over Instagram. “I’ve had cases where girls don’t to come to school, and they are cutting themselves and becoming severely depressed because they feel outcasted and targeted.” She says she now sees cutting incidents pretty much weekly at her elementary school, and while they vary in severity, it’s a signal that not all is right.”


What can we do about it?

– The AAP now suggest screening all children for depression starting at age 11.

-Get back to what we did before phones (back to what our parents did when we were young)… spend time playing games with our kids.

-Spend dinnertime talking.

-Drop everything that you are doing when your kids get home from school to TALK to them.

-Make dinner without having the TV on, the phone close by, or the tablet tuned into something.

-Use any ‘car time’ to talk to our kids (maybe even by not allowing electronics in the car)

-Have your kids do chores: Responsibilities increase their self-worth.   Example: if you don’t set the table, we can’t eat.  If you don’t wash your clothes, you will have nothing to wear tomorrow:

“To develop a high self-esteem a person needs a purpose. A key component to high self-esteem relies on how you view yourself regarding contribution. In other words, in the child development process, chores are a big role in a kid’s self-esteem.” 

-Be sure that your child is getting enough sleep.   This is a substantial contributing factor.  

-Don’t keep a lot of junk food in the house.  Limit junk food & replace it with fruits & vegetables.  If your child is picky, they can certainly find a fruit or vegetable that they like.  (I’ve taught our kids to make smoothies, too, but they have to clean up after themselves, or they lose the privilege of using the blender… they LOVE to make them, so this is a consequence that they will not want to be placed on them).

Take away electronics and tell your kids to “go play!”   Don’t feel the need to always play with them.  My job, as a play therapist, is to teach parents how to play with their kids to help them, so while I always think that playing with your kids is a good idea, but I also want them to play alone.  I want them to learn how to keep themselves entertained.

From the time that our kids were tiny, I gave them time to entertain themselves, and now they are are all good about finding ways to keep themselves busy (drawing, playing, building, etc..)

– Don’t rescue your kids.   Here’s a recent example that happened in our house:

I’ve started having our kids pack their lunches (with my supervision), but yesterday one of our sons decided to wait.. .and wait… and wait.  When it was down to 10 minutes before leaving, he asked me to pack it.  I said no, and he then asked for lunch money.  I said, “I think it’s upstairs in your piggy bank if you have some in there.” His face said it all.   I wasn’t going to buy him out of this.  It was his responsibility.

IT is NEVER easy to teach our kids these lessons, but they serve our kids well.   He quickly made himself lunch and was on his way.   He learned a valuable life lesson about preparing himself for the day.

-Talk to your kids about why they need to come to you if something is wrong.  I talk to our kids about all of this, and they know that I would do anything to help them.   I say it daily… “If you are ever feeling sad or left out about something and it becomes too big for you to handle easily, come to me.”

Yes, it’s a lot to tell them, but it is the truth.  I need them to know it.  It’s not a joking matter, and it’s not one to take lightly. Talk to your kids TODAY.

Make a rule with yourself that you will limit YOUR online distractions when your kids are home. Set a time that you can put electronics away… for example: Make 3:30-9:00 a no-tech time for you, the parent.   (or whatever hours your kids are home). It will not only benefit your kids, but it will help you, too.

Yes, it’s the scary truth about what’s hurting our kids, but we have the power to help.

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Western Sydney Is Getting A Zoo!

Western Sydney Is Getting A Zoo!

Plans for a $36 million “exotic and native animal conservation” at Western Sydney's Bungarribee Park have been approved, according to The Daily Telegraph. 

The development will be built on over 16 hectares of land overlooking the park, which will feature over 30 exhibitions. Set to open in 2018, the zoo is expected to bring in around 745,00 visitors each year, injecting an estimated $45 million into the NSW economy.

Cage-Free Zoo

So, what can you expect? There will be African safari animals on display, as well as an Aboriginal and natural heritage program, focusing on the local Darug people, which the zoo's managing director Jake Burgess claimed would be unlike any other program in other Aussie zoos. He also said that the zoo would promote natural animal behaviours and welfare: “This will promote awareness and an affinity with animals, improving our educational outcomes and increasing the willingness of people to value and protect them.”

The zoo will reportedly be "cage-free", with elevated walkways allowing viewing access to exotic animals, underwater glass viewing areas revealing hippos, crocs and the like and fences being exchanged for "enclosure devices concealed in the landscape elements", according to Pedestrian. 

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Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a motivational theory in psychology comprising a five tier model of human needs, often depicted as hierarchical levels within a pyramid.

Maslow (1943, 1954) stated that people are motivated to achieve certain needs and that some needs take precedence over others. Our most basic need is for physical survival, and this will be the first thing that motivates our behaviour. Once that level is fulfilled the next level up is what motivates us, and so on.

This five stage model can be divided into deficiency needs and growth needs. The first four levels are often refered to as deficiency needs, and the top level is known as growth or being needs.

The deficiency needs are said to motivate people when they are unmet. Also, the need to fulfil such needs will become stronger the longer the duration they are denied. For example, the longer a person goes without food, the more hungry they will become.

One must satisfy lower level deficit needs before progressing on to meet higher level growth needs. When a deficit need has been satisfied it will go away, and our activities become habitually directed towards meeting the next set of needs that we have yet to satisfy. These then become our salient needs. 

However growth needs continue to be felt and may even become stronger once they have been engaged. Once these growth needs have been reasonably satisfied, one may be able to reach the highest level called self-actualization.

Every person is capable and has the desire to move up the hierarchy toward a level of self-actualization. Unfortunately, progress is often disrupted by a failure to meet lower level needs. Life experiences including divorce and loss of a job may cause an individual to fluctuate between levels of the hierarchy.

Therefore not everyone will move through the hieracy in a uni-directional manner but may move back and forth between the different types of needs.

Maslow noted only one in a hundred people become fully self-actualized because our society rewards motivation primarily based on esteem, love and other social needs.

Maslow's original five-stage model



1. Biological and Physiological needs - air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep.

Safety needs - protection from elements, security, order, law, limits, stability, freedom from fear.

3. Love and belongingness needs - friendship, intimacy, trust and acceptance, receiving and giving affection and love. Affiliating, being part of a group (family, friends, work).

4. Esteem needs - achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, self-respect, respect from others.

5. Self-Actualization needs - realizing personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences.

Maslow posited that human needs are arranged in a hierarchy:

'It is quite true that man lives by bread alone — when there is no bread. But what happens to man’s desires when there is plenty of bread and when his belly is chronically filled? 

At once other (and “higher”) needs emerge and these, rather than physiological hungers, dominate the organism. And when these in turn are satisfied, again new (and still “higher”) needs emerge and so on. 

This is what we mean by saying that the basic human needs are organized into a hierarchy of relative prepotency' (Maslow, 1943, p. 375).


The expanded hierarchy of needs


It is important to note that Maslow's (1943, 1954) five stage model has been expanded to include cognitive and aesthetic needs (Maslow, 1970a) and later transcendence needs (Maslow, 1970b).


Changes to the original five-stage model are highlighted and include a seven-stage model and a eight-stage model, both developed during the 1960's and 1970s.

1. Biological and Physiological needs - air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc.

2. Safety needs - protection from elements, security, order, law, limits, stability, etc.

3. Love and belongingness needs - friendship, intimacy, trust and acceptance, receiving and giving affection and love. Affiliating, being part of a group (family, friends, work).

4. Esteem needs - self-esteem, achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, managerial responsibility, etc.

5. Cognitive needs - knowledge and understanding, curiosity, exploration, need for meaning and predictability.

6. Aesthetic needs - appreciation and search for beauty, balance, form, etc.

7. Self-Actualization needs - realizing personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences.

8. Transcendence needs - helping others to achieve self actualization. 


Expanded Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, Human Needs, Self Actualization, Humanistic Psychology



Instead of focusing on psychopathology and what goes wrong with people, Maslow (1943) formulated a more positive account of human behavior which focused on what goes right. He was interested in human potential, and how we fulfill that potential. 

Psychologist Abraham Maslow (1943, 1954) stated that human motivation is based on people seeking fulfillment and change through personal growth. Self-actualized people are those who were fulfilled and doing all they were capable of. 

The growth of self-actualization (Maslow, 1962) refers to the need for personal growth and discovery that is present throughout a person’s life. For Maslow, a person is always “becoming” and never remains static in these terms.  In self-actualization a person comes to find a meaning to life that is important to them. 

As each individual is unique the motivation for self-actualization leads people in different directions (Kenrick et al., 2010). For some people self-actualization can be achieved through creating works of art or literature, for others through sport, in the classroom, or within a corporate setting.

Maslow (1962) believed self-actualization could be measured through the concept of peak experiences. This occurs when a person experiences the world totally for what it is, and there are feelings of euphoria, joy and wonder.

It is important to note that self-actualization is a continual process of becoming rather than a perfect state one reaches of a 'happy ever after' (Hoffman, 1988).

Maslow offers the following description of self-actualization:

'It refers to the person’s desire for self-fulfillment, namely, to the tendency for him to become actualized in what he is potentially.

The specific form that these needs will take will of course vary greatly from person to person.

In one individual it may take the form of the desire to be an ideal mother, in another it may be expressed athletically, and in still another it may be expressed in painting pictures or in inventions' (Maslow, 1943, p. 382–383).

Although we are all, theoretically, capable of self-actualizing, most of us will not do so, or only to a limited degree. Maslow (1970) estimated that only two percent of people would reach the state of self-actualization. He was especially interested in the characteristics of people whom he considered to have achieved their potential as individuals.

By studying 18 people he considered to be self-actualized (including Abraham Lincoln and Albert Einstein) Maslow (1970) identified 15 characteristics of a self-actualized person.  

Characteristics of self-actualizers:

  1. They perceive reality efficiently and can tolerate uncertainty;
  2. Accept themselves and others for what they are;
  3. Spontaneous in thought and action;
  4. Problem-centered (not self-centered);
  5. Unusual sense of humor;
  6. Able to look at life objectively;
  7. Highly creative;
  8. Resistant to enculturation, but not purposely unconventional;
  9. Concerned for the welfare of humanity;
  10. Capable of deep appreciation of basic life-experience;
  11. Establish deep satisfying interpersonal relationships with a few people;
  12. Peak experiences;
  13. Need for privacy;
  14. Democratic attitudes;
  15. Strong moral/ethical standards.

Behavior leading to self-actualization:

(a) Experiencing life like a child, with full absorption and concentration;

(b) Trying new things instead of sticking to safe paths;

(c) Listening to your own feelings in evaluating experiences instead of the voice of tradition, authority or the majority;

(d) Avoiding pretense ('game playing') and being honest;

(e) Being prepared to be unpopular if your views do not coincide with those of the majority;

(f) Taking responsibility and working hard;

(g) Trying to identify your defenses and having the courage to give them up.

The characteristics of self-actualizers and the behaviors leading to self-actualization are shown in the list above. Although people achieve self-actualization in their own unique way, they tend to share certain characteristics. 

However, self-actualization is a matter of degree, 'There are no perfect human beings' (Maslow,1970a, p. 176). It is not necessary to display all 15 characteristics to become self-actualized, and not only self-actualized people will display them.  

Maslow did not equate self-actualization with perfection. Self-actualization merely involves achieving one's potential. Thus someone can be silly, wasteful, vain and impolite, and still self-actualize.  Less than two percent of the population achieve self-actualization.

Maslow's (1968) hierarchy of needs theory has made a major contribution to teaching and classroom management in schools. 

Rather than reducing behavior to a response in the environment, Maslow (1970a) adopts a holistic approach to education and learning. Maslow looks at the complete physical, emotional, social, and intellectual qualities of an individual and how they impact on learning. 

Applications of Maslow's hierarchy theory to the work of the classroom teacher are obvious. Before a student's cognitive needs can be met they must first fulfil their basic physiological needs.

For example a tired and hungry student will find it difficult to focus on learning. Students need to feel emotionally and physically safe and accepted within the classroom to progress and reach their full potential.

Maslow suggests students must be shown that they are valued and respected in the classroom and the teacher should create a supportive environment. Students with a low self-esteem will not progress academically at an optimum rate until their self-esteem is strengthened.

Critical evaluation 

The most significant limitation of Maslow's theory concerns his methodology. Maslow formulated the characteristics of self-actualized individuals from undertaking a qualitative method called biographical analysis. 

He looked at the biographies and writings of 18 people he identified as being self-actualized.  From these sources he developed a list of qualities that seemed characteristic of this specific group of people, as opposed to humanity in general. 

From a scientific perspective there are numerous problems with this particular approach.  First, it could be argued that biographical analysis as a method is extremely subjective as it is based entirely on the opinion of the researcher. Personal opinion is always prone to bias, which reduces the validity of any data obtained. Therefore Maslow's operational definition of self-actualization must not be blindly accepted as scientific fact.

Furthermore, Maslow's biographical analysis focused on a biased sample of self-actualized individuals, prominently limited to highly educated white males (such as Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, Albert Einstein, William James, Aldous Huxley, Gandhi, Beethoven).

Although Maslow (1970) did study self-actualized females, such as Eleanor Roosevelt and Mother Teresa, they comprised a small proportion of his sample. This makes it difficult to generalize his theory to females and individuals from lower social classes or different ethnicity. Thus questioning the population validity of Maslow's findings. 

Furthermore, it is extremely difficult to empirically test Maslow's concept of self-actualization in a way that causal relationships can be established.  

Another criticism concerns Maslow's assumption that the lower needs must be satisfied before a person can achieve their potential and self-actualize.  This is not always the case, and therefore Maslow's hierarchy of needs in some aspects has been falsified. 

Through examining cultures in which large numbers of people live in poverty (such as India) it is clear that people are still capable of higher order needs such as love and belongingness. However, this should not occur, as according to Maslow, people who have difficulty achieving very basic physiological needs (such as food, shelter etc.) are not capable of meeting higher growth needs.

Also, many creative people, such as authors and artists (e.g. Rembrandt and Van Gogh) lived in poverty throughout their lifetime, yet it could be argued that they achieved self-actualization.

Psychologists now conceptualize motivation as a pluralistic behavior, whereby needs can operate on many levels simultaneously. A person may be motivated by higher growth needs at the same time as lower level deficiency needs. 

Contemporary research by Tay & Diener (2011) has tested Maslow’s theory by analyzing the data of 60,865 participants from 123 countries, representing every major region of the world. The survey was conducted from 2005 to 2010.

Respondents answered questions about six needs that closely resemble those in Maslow's model: basic needs (food, shelter); safety; social needs (love, support); respect; mastery; and autonomy. 

They also rated their well-being across three discrete measures: life evaluation (a person's view of his or her life as a whole), positive feelings (day-to-day instances of joy or pleasure), and negative feelings (everyday experiences of sorrow, anger, or stress). 

The results of the study support the view that universal human needs appear to exist regardless of cultural differences. However, the ordering of the needs within the hierarchy was not correct. 

"Although the most basic needs might get the most attention when you don't have them," Diener explains, "you don't need to fulfill them in order to get benefits [from the others]." 

Even when we are hungry, for instance, we can be happy with our friends. "They're like vitamins," Diener says about how the needs work independently. "We need them all."


Hoffman, E. (1988). The right to be human: A biography of Abraham Maslow. Jeremy P. Tarcher, Inc.

Kenrick, D. T., Neuberg, S. L., Griskevicius, V., Becker, D. V., & Schaller, M. (2010). Goal-Driven Cognition and Functional Behavior The Fundamental-Motives Framework. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19(1), 63-67.

Maslow, A. H. (1943). A Theory of Human MotivationPsychological Review, 50(4), 370-96.

Maslow, A. H. (1954). Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper and Row.

Maslow, A. H. (1962). Towards a Psychology of Being. Princeton: D. Van Nostrand Company.

Maslow, A. H. (1968). Toward a Psychology of Being. New York: D. Van Nostrand Company.

Maslow, A. H. (1970a). Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper & Row.

Maslow, A. H. (1970b). Religions, values, and peak experiences. New York: Penguin. (Original work published 1964)

Tay, L., & Diener, E. (2011). Needs and subjective well-being around the world. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101(2), 354.

How to cite this article:

McLeod, S. A. (2016). Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. Retrieved from

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